Myopia is a result of a mismatch between the refractive power of the eye and its axial length, most commonly from the eye growing too long. In the United States, the prevalence of myopia increased from 25% in 1971 to 1972 to 42% in 1999 to 2004, and worldwide, the condition’s prevalence is expected to reach 50% by 2050. With an increase in prevalence and severity, the interest in the pathophysiology and mechanisms of myopia follows. Treatments such as atropine, orthokeratology and peripheral defocus contact lenses are used to slow the progression of myopia after it develops, but a better understanding of the causes of myopia could delay or prevent onset altogether.
By Erin S. Tomiyama, OD, PhD
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